This is annoying. Ported a WordPress installation from a web server to my Mac, but the homepage is the only WordPress page that loads. No permalinks work.
The solution, in my case, and hopefully for others too, was very simple:
mod rewrite was disabled. Whoops.
sudo nano /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
Remove the # from in front of the mod rewrite line. There’s a good chance that’ll be the problem!